Saturday, March 7, 2020

Investigate the various types of assessment, and how they impact the Design Technology classroom The WritePass Journal

Investigate the various types of assessment, and how they impact the Design Technology classroom Introduction Investigate the various types of assessment, and how they impact the Design Technology classroom IntroductionBibliography]Related Introduction In the essay I explore the contribution that assessment makes towards learning. I investigate the various types of assessment, and what impact they have on the learner, drawing upon my own experience in the Design Technology classroom. In particular, I review the summative and formative ways of assessing and conclude that formative assessment is more beneficial to the learner as they gain new knowledge and skills to inform their learning, with the feedback given through this process. Conversely, summative assessment can sometimes cause problems within the classroom as children try and ‘be the best’. To bring the essay to a close, I discuss ideas for the future regarding assessment in Design Technology and what I think should happen. The term ‘assessment’ â€Å"is how pupils recognise achievement and make progress, and how teachers shape and personalise their teaching.† (QCA, 2009) In the past assessment was â€Å"seen as something distinct from learning;† (Chater, 1984, p4) contrasting this view in a recent review on assessment Daugherty (2002) found it to be: One of the most powerful educational tools for promoting effective learning†¦ the focus needs to be on helping teachers use assessment, as part of teaching and learning, in ways that will raise pupils’ achievement. (Daugherty, 2002) Daugherty, a member of the Assessment Reform Group, is raising a well-founded point, as he is well researched into ‘assessment,’ making government policy but also works closely with teachers and local education authority staff to advance understanding of the roles, purposes and impacts of assessment. Teachers planning should include strategies to ensure that learners understand the goals they are pursuing and the criteria that will be applied in assessing their work. OFSTED reports can often be seen as biased and its independence questioned, being dubbed the â€Å"Governments ‘poodle’ during a Commons committee hearing† (Stewart, 2009) and inspections seen as an â€Å"instrument of state control† forcing teachers to follow politicians’ agendas.† (Shaw, 2009) Nevertheless, this report raises good points to be considered by teachers who strive to use assessment in their teaching, hence the citation. This type of on-going assessment described in the report is known as formative assessment. It is common for assessment to be divided into either formative or summative categories for the purpose of considering different objectives for assessment practices, although they can overlap. Summative assessment is generally carried out at the end of a course or project. In Design Technology, summative assessments are typically used to assign students an end of topic grade. Formative assessment is generally carried out throughout a course or project and is used to aid learning. Summative assessment is the assessment of learning and in Design Technology it provides evidence of student achievement for reporting and accountability purposes.   Its main purpose is to make judgements about performance. An example of this is the norm-referenced tests (NRT), which classifies students. NRTs draw attention to the achievement differences between and among students to produce a dependable rank order of students across a continuum of achievement from high achievers to low achievers (Stiggins, 1994). Schools use this system to place pupils in ability groups, including Gifted and Talented. However, it is argued that â€Å"Assessment should be a powerful tool for learning, not merely a political solution to perceived problems over standards and accountability.† (ATL, 1996) This is reinforcing Daugherty’s idea, as it perceives assessment as a tool, a working progress- formative assessment, not an end product- summative assessment. Formative assessment is Assessment for learning and in Design Technology it helps to inform the teaching and learning process by identifying students’ strengths and weaknesses.   Its main purpose is to gather information. Diagnostic assessment, which helps to identify specific learning strengths and needs, can fall into both categories. It determines learning targets and appropriate teaching and learning strategies to achieve them. This is important because: Many learners have higher-level skills in some areas than in others. Diagnostic assessment happens initially at the beginning of a learning programme and subsequently when the need arises. (QIA, 2008) Therefore; it can be summative, as it results in a grade and the student is placed in an ability group on what they already know. However, this â€Å"information is used to make links to progression routes and prepare for the next steps;† (QIA, 2008) thus becomes formative, as they discover the gaps in their knowledge and learn how to fill these gaps. A type of formative assessment is a criterion-referenced test which determines, â€Å"what test takers can do and what they know, not how they compare to others.† (Anastasi, 1988, p102) Assessment for Learning ensures that pupils understand what they can do, but are also informed how to improve on what they find difficult, and what type of learning process they must take to achieve this. This formative assessment: Forms the direction of future learning and so the requirement of formative assessment is that the feedback given back to the learner helps the learner improve, but more importantly that the learner actually uses that information to improve. (Marshall, 2002, p48) Feedback for learning in Design Technology is vital. The teacher will take pleasure in rewarding students with praises; however, there is more valuable feedback that they should receive, as Black Wiliam found: Pupils look for the ways to obtain the best marks rather than at the needs of their learning which these marks ought to reflect†¦ They spend time and energy looking for clues to the ‘right answer’. (Black Wiliam, 1998) In Design Technology, a subject in which there is seldom a ‘right answer,’ it is essential that â€Å"we focus on promoting learning instead of encouraging students to seek the easiest way to get the best results.† (Branson, 2005, p76) This indicates that the summative assessment is preventing the student reaching their full potential through learning, as they want to be the best in the class; therefore, will rote learn and be ‘taught-to-the-test’ to achieve this top grade. This could mean that student is not learning, but remembering facts for the test, and once the test is over they will not retain much of the knowledge. Nevertheless, the summative results could be used as part of a formative assessment (Black Wiliam, 1998) if the correct feedback was given to them instead of just a grade. This feedback will only be effective if the quality of teacher-pupil interaction is high and provides, â€Å"the stimulus and help for pupils to take active responsibility for their own learning.†(Black Wiliam, 1998) To create effective feedback we must â€Å"teach less and talk about learning more.† (Branson, 2005, p77) This is known as meta-learning which draws upon goals, strategies, effects, feelings and context of learning, each of which has significant personal and social dimensions: Those who are advanced in meta-learning realise that what is learned (the outcome or the result) and how it is learned (the act or the process) are two inseparable aspects of learning. (Watkins, 2001) If students practise these skills they will be able evaluate work successfully, apply their assessment criteria to their work and their peers’ work. Through this greater understanding of their own learning, the students will have the â€Å"ability of the performance† (Marshall, 2002, p57) and be able to apply the knowledge and strategies they have acquired to various contexts, transferring their skills to suit the situation. Good day-to-day indications of students’ progress are tasks and questions that prompt learners to show their knowledge, skills and understanding. What learners say and do is then observed and interpreted, by teacher and peers, and judgements are made about how learning can be improved. These assessment processes are an important part of everyday classroom practice and involve both teachers and learners in reflection when talking about new targets. The questions posed should be open-ended, allowing the student to fully express themselves and ensuring that they will not ‘lose face,’ as there is not a right or wrong answer. If a student finds answering a question difficult, a peer can step in and help, which can have a positive effect on the class as there are â€Å"things that students will take from each other that they won’t take from a teacher.† (Marshall, 2002, p48) In turn, peer assessment helps develop self-assessment which promotes independent l earning, helping children to take increasing responsibility for their own progress. An example of good practice I have seen in an Design Technology classroom is ‘PEN marking’ Positive, Error, Next Time, in which students would pen mark their own work and assess each others work looking for two good aspects about the piece, and an improvement. This way the students are praising each other; therefore, they are not scared to suggest an improvement. Through assessing their peers work, they also find ways to improve their own. This is subjective as it is my own opinion, but does relate to what Marshall’s theory- that they will take from each other that they would not from a teacher, as several ‘wishes’ from the students sounded harsh but I found that in their next piece of work they had tried harder at it. However, the work may also have improved if the teacher had said it, so this theory is not infallible. The OFSTED report states that: Many pupils were still not clear about what their strengths and weaknesses were or how they might improve. (OFSTED, 2009, p14) Assessment for learning states that for effective learning to take place students need to understand what it is they are trying to achieve, and want to achieve it. Understanding and commitment follows when they have a part in deciding goals and identifying criteria for assessing progress. Communicating assessment criteria involves discussing them with the students using terms that they can understand, providing examples of how the criteria can be met in practice and engaging learners in peer and self-assessment.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I think the problem of pupils not being cle ar about their strengths and weaknesses can be solved with the introduction of Assessing Pupils’ Progress (APP) into schools. The school where I am doing my placement is using the APP process for the first time this year, and so far are finding it successful.   APP is a ‘systematic approach to periodic assessment that provides diagnostic information about individual pupils’ progress and management information about the attainment and progress of groups’. (DfCSF, 2008) A key purpose of APP is to inform and strengthen planning, teaching and learning. This aspect of APP can have a direct and positive impact on raising standards, and can assist in the personalisation of learning. Based on the assessment focuses (AFs) that underpin National Curriculum assessment, the APP approach improves the quality and reliability of teacher assessment. My school have simplified the APP focuses and levels into student speak so they can fully understand the concept and purpose. All students in KS3 are now fully aware that they will have an APP assessment in Design Technology at the end of every half term. The assessment will be based upon the scheme of work studied over the half term. For example the last assessment was to write a character description: the scheme studied being fiction. The Design Technology teacher has an expectation that every individual child should attain two sub-levels a year; the student is also aware of this. Before the student completed the final assessment they assessed a Character Description supplied by the teacher, using the same AF’s that they were going to be assessed on. This allowed the students to see exactly what they had to do to ach ieve a Level 5, as one pupil pointed out that, â€Å"Even though they’ve put their ideas together in order Miss, they haven’t used paragraphs so they can’t get a Level 5 for AF3†. This process of evaluation helps the student progress in their work, as they can see clearly what they have to do to improve. Ultimately, I think that the contribution of assessment has a huge impact on pupils’ learning; with well focused feedback, including thorough marking that identifies clear targets, students can progress and become independent learners, a foundation preparing for their independent life.   I think that APP alongside Assessment for Learning is a good way for the student and the teacher to gauge progress, as the objectives are clear, and the ways to achieve them are made obvious through ‘pupil speak’. This does not mean that I think summative is an incorrect way of assessment, as I echo the thoughts of Black Wiliam (1998) in that if a summative assessment is used to inform the student for progression then it can have a positive effect. When I start NQT year, I hope to be employed in a school that uses APP, and if not I will try and implement it, as I think it benefits students as much as it does the teacher. Bibliography] Anastasi, A. (1988). Psychological Testing. New York, New York: MacMillan Publishing Company Association of Teachers and Lecturers. (1996). Doing our Level Best. Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998) Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment, Kings College London. [Online] Available from: www.kcl.ac.uk/education/publications/Black%20Box.pdf [Accessed 20th October 2009] Branson, J. (2005) ‘Assessment, recording and reporting’. In: Goodwyn, A Branson, J. (eds). Teaching English: A Handbook for Primary and Secondary School Teachers. London: Routledge. Chater, P. (1984) Marking Assessment in English. London: Methuen Co Ltd. Daugherty R. (2002) Assessing for learning insides. [Online] 2002. Available from: assessment-reform-group.org/AssessInsides.pdf [Accessed 21st October 2009] DfCSF. (2008) Assessing Pupils Progress (APP) In English. [Online] Aug 2008. Available from: http://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/node/16051?uc=force_deep [Accessed 21st October 2009] Marshall, B. (2002) ‘Thinking through Assessment: An Interview with Dylan Wiliam’. English in Education, 36 (3) p47-60. OFSTED. (2009) English at the crossroads. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. QCA. (2005) A national conversation on the future of English. [Online]. 2005. Available from: qcda.gov.uk/libraryAssets/media/qca-05-1835-playback-web.pdf [Accessed 21st October 2009] QCA. (2009) Assessment key principles- National Curriculum. [Online]. June 2009. Available from: http://curriculum.qcda.gov.uk/key-stages-3-and-4/assessment/Assessment-key-principles/index.aspx?return=/key-stages-3-and-4/assessment/index.aspx   [Accessed: 20th October 2009] QIA. (2008) Initial and diagnostic assessment: a learner- centred process. [Online] 2008. Available from sfl-sw.org.uk/userfiles/files/Initial%2520and%2520Diagnostic%2520assessment%2520a%2520learner-centred%2520process.pdf [Accessed 21st October 2009] Scriven, M. (1991). Evaluation thesaurus. 4th ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Shaw, M. 2009. ‘Ofsted inspections are means of state control’. Times Educational Supplement, 15 March. p.7 Stiggins, R.J. (1994). Student-Centered Classroom Assessment. New York: Merrill. Watkins, C. (2001) ‘Learning about Learning Enhances Performance’ in National School Improvement Network Research Matters 13, London: Institute of Education. William, S. (2009) ‘Ofsted accused of being ministerial poodle over school report cards’. Times Educational Supplement, 10 July. p.33

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Food Prices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Food Prices - Essay Example There are many reasons for this sharp increase in the prices of food especially and a valid economic justification may not be provided to accurately outline the factors behind the increase in the food prices. Development of alternative fuel i.e. bio-diesel, low crop yields due to bad weather in major commodity producing countries as well as the higher demand from developed as well as emerging countries, all resulted into food inflation. Besides, the recession in US economy, one of the largest importers of commodities, is also cited as one of the major reasons behind the sharp increase in the food prices as there has been substantial crises being faced by US economy over the period of almost two years. The increase in food prices can be traced back to last two years as FAO food Index rose by 9% in 2006 and 23% in 2007. (IFAD, 2008). This sharp increase suggests that there is a great increase in the prices of food items all over the world and many important factors are at play which is pushing the prices up. In order to make an economic analysis of this increase, we will outline and discuss different factors causing the prices to go up. (The World Bank, 2008) There is a general increase in the concern being shown over the impact of greenhouse gases over the environment of the world. This, coupled with depleting oil resources of the world, has forced many developed nations to look for alternative sources of energy to fulfill the future energy needs of the planet. Bio-diesel is one such alternative which has been advocated as the potential replacement of oil as a source of energy. However, this shift towards finding alternative sources has greatly increased the demand for the food items especially rice, sugarcane and corn -the commodities which are now heavily used in producing bio-diesel. This increase in quantity demanded for rice and sugarcane especially have seen a great deal of increase due to increase demand from developed countries. (Economist, 2007). It is also important to mention that increasing subsidies on ethanol in developed world have increased the overall demand for sugarcane because it's now being used for producing ethanol rather than sugar. (Buntrock, 2007) It is also important to note that due to greater demand from developed world, developing countries, which are considered as the suppliers of basic food items in international market, started to export most of their produce resulting in strong shortage of the food commodities in their own countries. This shortage of essential food commodities, in developing countries, also put strong pressure on the prices to rise upward. Reduced Output According to IFAD, the available stocks of the cereals at the start of the year were very low. This, coupled with the reduction in the overall output level of major cereals by 6.9% in 2006, suggested a reduced supply of essential cereals in the market. (IFAD, 2008). This has been mainly attributed to the bad weather in major producing countries i.e. Brazil, Thailand, India etc causing acute shortage of cereals in the market therefore putting pressure on prices to go up drastically in such short span of time. Removal of Farm

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Excessive Police force In america Research Paper

Excessive Police force In america - Research Paper Example When the officer was being tried for killing, the jury was told to consider the following verdicts: second degree or involuntary manslaughter. The juror decided to charge him with involuntary manslaughter even after substantial evidence was provided. This kind of judgments also contributes a lot to police officers become brutal to their citizens. Even after congress had passed Violent Control and Law Enforcement Act, they have neglected their responsibility to continuously provide the necessary funds for its enactment. There is no need for the police to keep and criminal records since the legislations can handle this matter. It is quite unfortunate that the legislation department does not hold police officers responsible for their criminal acts and the violation of human rights. When police officers murder innocent citizens in America, they are most of the time charged with involuntary manslaughter. The definition of this term in legal terms is the unlawful killing of person that was done unintentionally (Alexander, 2005). May states in the world do not even have the proper definition of this term, thus many people go unpunished for the criminal act they have committed. Many people who are brutally murdered by the police officers rarely get justice. Even after a police officer is found guilty, his sentence is reduced. Some p olice officers are even released on parole when current fracas reduces and people have forgotten about the incident. When the court does not hold police officers accountable of his actions after committing a crime, citizens start demonstrating. The same police officers mishandle the citizens by arresting them in large numbers even if they are holding peaceful demonstrations. The citizens are disconnected to the police officers because of being handled heavily and brutally (Alexander, 2005). Families that are not served with justice after one of them is murdered are

Monday, January 27, 2020

Water Resources in Malaysia

Water Resources in Malaysia Abstract Malaysia is a island around with ocean. It seems that there are lots of fresh water can be obtained. And I found that Malaysia received an abundance of rainfall per year. And they are rich with water resources. Also, Malaysia have bottled water in anywhere. The government often provides many bottled water to poor people and dry place. the size of bottled water is large and large in Malaysia, and then, each family all possess some bottled water at home. Finally, I want to suggest the factors and use other ideas to further support the solution. Introduction First, I found some information about fresh water in Malaysia. There are lots of solutions online. Although, Malaysia is surrounded by ocean, and it received an abundance of rainfall. They also rich with water resources. The   south of Malaysia and north of Malaysia are all need more water. And there are many sewage sources, like lots of industry and garbage in the country. So, many river would become very bad, likes there are many green points covered the river, you will smell bad and you cant use this water. In Malaysia, the supply of water is inadvisable for our. They do not have perfect protection of system. If one river be polluted, other rivers also be polluted. Because of this, many aquatic animals will be died. Likes whale will be disappointed in the world cause the ocean be destroyed. Therefore, I mean that the system of water resources should be improved. Methodology From the internet, I find that some websites about the supply of water in Malaysia. And I saw many bad things about bad environment in Malaysia. This means that there are lots of problem in Malaysias water system. They have many sewage sources into river because of many chemistry industries, likes sewage treatment plants, manufacturing industry, animals industry etc. and I also saw the other strategies, that is bottled water using. Its really reliable for peoples life. This is an ideas from unknown author. And I saw a website published by that author. He is famous person, so, I believe that very will. In the internet, I spent more times to research the different topic.and they can give me different ideas. Therefore, I know what is different topic. Findings From the internet, I found the chart of water resources about Malaysia. And the chart describes the number of river is dirty or clean. From the chart, we know that the situation of river is becoming better and better during 2005 to 2012. Cause government express they has the rule about protect the fresh water. And they also purchase the water from china. And the part of slightly polluted also become better and better. In the final, the part of polluted is becoming smaller and smaller. And from the internet, I know a lot of problems about water resources. But now, they can use bottled water to keep working and living. And the water environments situation will not become bad. Discussion In findings, there are one issue that I can talk. From above, I can know the China hold lots of fresh water, so Malaysia purchase the fresh water from china is right. And the Malaysias water system is becoming better during 2005 to 2012. The pollution start to become a little condition, people can possess the clean place to live. On the other hand, I think Malaysia can save the fresh water by themselves. They can built many techniques to survive the water.they can do it without others help. And other countries also have enough water, its better for Malaysia to life. They can acquire these water from other place. But, they should take out some ideas for their water resources. Also, the government should protect the river by all citizen. Someone think that Malaysia government should award some strategies for water environment. I agree with it, I also think bottled water use is right choose. Therefore, I support the strategies to use and keep. Conclusions and Recommendations       Overall, in my view, the alternative of bottled water use and protect the water environment are all right. But now, I think protect water environment is right for us. Because its the basic reason for improve their water environment. To solve this problem, the water system will go original situation. And now, they should purchase the bottled water from other countries. That also is a big problem now, it will cause other pollution for the world. However, I think that they should balance the water use and environment protection. Only do this, their water resources can be keep streaming. References List of the fresh water in Malaysia(1993), available from:http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/T0800E/t0800e0a.htm [Assessed 5 may] Water supply in Malaysia(1989), available from: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/18072/[Assessed 14 oct] Malaysia need o reduce water consumption(2015), available from: https://m.malaysiakini.com/letters/323856[assessed 18 dec ]

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Evil Paper: Abraham Lincoln Assassination Essay

Thesis: The Abraham Lincoln Assassination was a horrible and tragic event, and the way the country was so strongly divided up at that time affected the way the events of the assassination played out before, during and after the evil event. Topic Sentence: Much before the assassination, the Union and the confederacy were strongly divided in the country and shared many different viewpoints of how the country should be run, and the reader can see how easy it would be for a member of the Confederacy to feel the need to plot a plan for the murder of the Union leader, Abraham Lincoln. Context: John Wilkes Booth and his fellow Confederate sympathizers wanted to plot a plan to capture the president and take him to the Confederate capital of Richmond in a plan to demand peace or the release of confederate soldiers. Example: â€Å"That means nigger citizenship, now, by God, I’ll put him through. That is the last speech he will ever make†(Hamner). Analysis: Booth is expressing his hateful emotions after the speech he just heard from Lincoln. The speech Lincoln stated included the idea of getting the country united as one, and giving the right for literate African-Americans to vote. Booth did not like either one of these ideas Lincoln had in mind (more so giving the African-Americans the right to vote) and stated that he will put him through, and this will be the last speech that he will make. Booth is foreshadowing his murder of Abraham Lincoln. Topic Sentence: After a very well thought out plan with his fellow Confederate sympathizers, John Wilkes Booth was ready to complete the task he vowed to finish; to kill the President of the United States. Context: John Wilkes Booth and his fellow Confederates had tried numerous times to take out the president, though none of the plans worked. However, on the night of April 14, 1865 John Wilkes Booth was excited to hear the news that Abraham Lincoln would be attending a play nearby the area that Wilkes was at that time. On that night in Ford’s theatre, at 10:15 p.m. Booth snuck into Lincoln’s private box, pulled out his .44 caliber pistol and shot Lincoln in the back of the head. Wilkes somehow escaped the theatre with a broken leg, and left everybody in the theatre in awe of what had just occurred. Example: â€Å"Sic semper tyrannis!†(John Wilkes Booth Biography) Analysis: This statement was said by John Wilkes Booth just moments after he shot the president in the back of the head. Although this was said in Latin, in English this quote means â€Å"thus always to tyrants†, which was the Virginia state motto at the time. Lincoln was not considered to be a tyrant of the time, but that didn’t mean that Booth didn’t think that way. This quote can be translated to â€Å"this is what happens when you are a tyrant.† This shows that Booth had a very true hate for the 16th president of the United States, did not believe in his moves as a president, and most importantly wanted the Confederacy to dominate the Union. Topic Sentence: This horrible event put many Americans in a state of shock and uncertainty, and in the aftermath of the assassination many Union members seek to go after and kill everybody involved in this gruesome act. Context: The search for Booth was one of the largest manhunts to take place in history, as many as 10,000 federal troops, police officers, and detectives were attempting to locate the trail of the assassin. After Booth fled the capitol, he was met by David Herold, who would help him cross the Anacostia River into Maryland. Booth stopped by Dr. Samuel Mudd’s house on the way, where his leg was treated (Mudd’s assistance of Booth gave him a life sentence in jail). Booth was then assisted by Confederate agent Thomas A. Jones, who helped him cross the Potomac River to Virginia, where Booth and Herold would hide for the time being. Nearly two weeks after the assassination, the union soldiers located Booth and Herold in a farmhouse, to which the soldiers set fire. Herold surrendered, but Booth stayed inside. As the fire got worse, one of the soldiers shot Booth (the sergeant claimed that Booth raised his gun like he was going to shoot). Booth eventually crawled out and three hours later was pronounced dead. All four of the Confederates who assisted Booth in the plotting of killing Lincoln were executed by hanging. Example: â€Å"Useless, useless!† (Abraham Lincoln’s Assassination) Analysis: Moments before Booth died, Booth stared at his hands and shouted â€Å"useless† because he was referring to his inability to do anything for the last three hours of his life (as he was paralyzed from the shot he took in the barn). Booth wanted to go down with a fight and was unable to due to his disability, making Booth very mad at himself. Works Cited â€Å"Abraham Lincoln’s Assassination.† History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. . -This article provided by history.com provided a good description of the assassination from the plotting of the assassination to the aftermath. The website also provided some videos that proved to provide meaningful information for the sake of my research paper. Overall the best source I had, and I was able to really get a good idea of what the assassination was all about. Hamner, Christopher. â€Å"Teaching History.org, Home of the National History Education Clearinghouse.† Booth’s Reason for Assassination. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. . -The author of this article, Christopher Hamner seems to have a good idea of the assassination, and is very successful at giving me information about Booth’s reasoning for his murder of Lincoln. Hamner is a very qualified historian, and he teaches at George Mason University. Hamner gave me detailed information of the assassination, which will be very beneficial for my paper. â€Å"John Wilkes Booth Biography.† Bio.com. A&E Net works Television, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. . -Biography.com does a very good job of giving me quotes, videos, and a good text reference of the assassin, John Wilkes Booth. My paper was focused mostly on Booth and his actions throughout the assassination, and biography.com helped give me a good portion of my information that I used in this paper.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Comment on how Romeo Essay

Comment on how Romeo and Juliet use language to communicate their feelings about love until Act II, scene ii of the play. ‘Romeo and Juliet’ is the tragic story of two lovers separated by their feuding families. The origins of ‘Romeo and Juliet’ originate before Shakespeare and so the story has been made familiar to audiences and readers of previous generations. Many historians believe he got his inspiration from literature dating back to the sixteenth century such as the poem by Arthur Brooke called ‘The Tragicall Historye Of Romeus and Iuliet’, written in 1562. Shakespeare adapted this story in order for it to appeal to the Elizabethan audience. The male protagonist of the play is Romeo Montague. He is approximately seventeen or eighteen years old. Romeo is a stereotypical adolescent boy, who emotions are fickle and based on lust. He constantly spends time thinking about love and his desire to be in love. He is spurned by the lady he adores Rosaline. Romeo follows the conventions of ‘courtly love’ with diligence. In contrast the female protagonist Juliet Capulet is of a younger age; barely into her teenage years. Juliet is the opposite to Romeo as she is not stereotypical. Juliet does not comprehend or desire marriage, which is unusual of a girl her age. However, it is surprising Juliet breaches the rules of ‘courtly love’ by accepting the proposal of marriage as soon as Romeo enquired Juliet. Juliet also defies the convention by not marrying a man of her father’s choosing. Despite the Capulets and Montagues long standing hatred for each other, fate coincidently brings Romeo and Juliet together. The play ends with tragic consequences as a result from the families hatred. Romeo and Juliet both sacrifice themselves for the power of love. Shakespeare uses numerous dramatic devices and language techniques to explore and convey Romeo and Juliet’s emotions. Act I, scene i takes place after a riot between the Montagues and Capulets. Despite the uproar Romeo decides to take no participation in this argument as he is so infatuated by his desire for Rosaline. Benvolio says â€Å"Good morrow, cousin†. Romeo replies â€Å"Is the day so young† indicating that he is so wrapped up in his own emotions that he is surprised it is still morning. This is typical of courtly love. Benvolio informs Romeo that it has only just struck the hour of nine. â€Å"Aye me! Sad hours seem long† Romeo personifies time to portray the grief he endures. â€Å"Not having that, which, having, makes them short† Romeo indicates that time passes quickly with Rosaline but time drags on without her. Romeo also says; â€Å"Out of favour, where I am in love,† This shows that the feeling is not mutual therefore it can not be true love. Romeo also says; â€Å"Alas, that love, whose view is muffled still, should, without eyes, see pathways to his will! † Romeo implies love is cupid and although he is blindfolded he still makes people fall in love. He believes love is inevitable. Romeo enquires about the dispute but he quickly switches back to talking about love that he yearns for, when he says â€Å"Yet tell me not, for I have heard it all. † Romeo is talking about fighting in general and not he has heard about the fight that has just taken place. He completely does not care about it and he is disloyal to his family. â€Å"Here’s much to do with hate, but more with love. † He believes no matter how much people talk about hate, love is far more interesting as Romeo implies. Romeo’s infatuation with lust is reflected in his over elaborate use of language. â€Å"Well, in that you miss: she’ll not be hit With Cupid’s arrow; she hath Dian’s wit; nd, in string proof of chastity well arm’d, from love’s weak childish bow she lives unharm’d. she will not stay the siege of loving terms,† Romeo here portrays lust that he wants from Rosaline. He describes virginity like a fortress which needs to be conquered . Romeo is also critical of her virginity. Romeo is continuously using paradoxes to describe love. Romeo demonstrates a young man who does not actually feel genuine love as he describes it as love and hate when he says â€Å"O brawling love! O loving hate! † â€Å"O heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Mis-sharpen chaos of well-seeming forms! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, Sick health! † Conveying emotions of love which Romeo is experiencing, which is in such a mixed up way that it is not enjoyable but painful. Romeo says; â€Å"Tis the way To call hers exquisite, in question more:† Romeo has a fickle nature and he believes that looking at others would only make her more beautiful. Romeo implies that speaking of his lady would make him ‘groan’. Romeo emphasizes the pain he endures by referring love of love to be a sickness and of dying by saying; â€Å"Bid a sick man in sadness make his wil† Romeo ends with â€Å"farewell: thou canst not teach me to forget. † Romeo shows that he can not forget about his love and one can teach him to forget about his love. Juliet Capulet is a young girl living in the town of Verona. Juliet is probably around the age of fourteen or fifteen years of age. Ladies in Verona, by the ages of Juliet were often married and settled down with children. Juliet being the daughter of wealthy Capulet is no exception to this and is expected to marry. Juliet has hardly reached womanhood when she is expected to make a life changing decision Act I scene iii takes place in a room in the Capulets mansion. Lady Capulet breaks the news to Juliet about the idea of marriage. Lady Capulet says, â€Å"Marry, that ‘marry’ is the very theme I came to talk of†. Juliet replies â€Å"it is a n honour that I dream of not† as she is very shocked by the idea as she still thinks she is too young. She is innocent and nai ve. Lady Capulet says to Juliet; â€Å"Here in Verona, ladies of esteem, are made already mothers; by my count† Lady Capulet is suggesting Juliet is being left behind as most ladies are married by now. Lady Capulet also uses persuasive adjectives like â€Å"valiant† to advertise Paris as being perfect and encourage her daughter to marry him. The nurse of Juliet also emphasizes Paris being perfect â€Å"He’s a man of wax† Juliet hardly shows much emotion about married. Juliet says; â€Å"I’ll look to like, if looking liking move: But no more deep will I endart mine eye Than your consent gives me strength to make it fly† Juliet shows here she will happily make the acquaintance of Paris only to please her mother, but Juliet is promising nothing. Juliet is not really bothered about meeting Paris as she does not desire married and partnership. Juliet and Romeo meet each other in the Capulets mansion where a party was taking place. Towards the end of act II, scene ii Romeo and Juliet use extended images of falcony to demonstrate their reluctance to separate until the following morning. Juliet confides in Romeo by using a metaphor; â€Å"O for a falconer’s voice, To lure thus tassel-gentle back again† Juliet wishes to capture Romeo, like a bird, so that she can lure him back to her whenever she wants. Romeo extends the metaphor by referring to Juliet as â€Å"My Niese†. Romeo is implying Juliet as being a hawk, this is important as it reminds the audience of Juliet’s age and her innocence. Juliet is very protective and shows this by using a simile; â€Å"I would have thee gone; And yet no farther than a wanton’s bird; That lets it hop a little from her hand, Like a prisoner in his twisted gives, And with a silken thread plucks it back again, So loving-jealous of his liberty† Juliet desires to imprison Romeo like a bird. Juliet uses a oxymoron to highlight her contrasting feelings; half of her wants to set Romeo free as if he remains he will get into danger but Juliet is selfish and wants Romeo to stay for her own benefit. Romeo and Juliet uses extended images of sea voyages and adventure to communicate their love for each other. Romeo uses a metaphor to show Juliet how much he loves her and how important she is to him. â€Å"As that vast shore wash’d with the farthest sea, I would adventure for such merchandise. † Romeo relates to Juliet being merchandise, which he is prepared to travel the furthest sea to gain such a priceless treasure. Juliet uses an extended simile later on in the play to re-emphasize Romeo’s feelings. â€Å"My bounty is as boundless as the sea, My love as deep, the more I give to thee. † Juliet’s love is as endless like the sea. Both Juliet and Romeo worship each other and are prepared to do anything, just to get what they want. Juliet also has ‘bounty’, the willingness to give her love to Romeo. Romeo and Juliet use extended images of angels and heaven to express how heavenly their love and desire is for one another. Romeo expresses his feelings about Juliet in his soliloquy at the beginning of the scene; â€Å"Her eyes in heaven Would through the airy region stream so bright That birds would sing and think it were not night. † Romeo is saying that Juliet has the power over nature, she is as bright as the sun, her beauty is so extreme she can make the birds sing. Romeo extends the idea of cosmic image; â€Å"O speak again, bright angel† Romeo refers as Juliet being an angel as there is nothing more perfect as angels , more beautiful than any mortal could wish to be. Juliet impresses Romeo so much that he can not believe she is human. â€Å"For thou art As glorious to this night, being o’er my head, As is a winger messenger of heaven† Romeo expresses Juliet to have angel-like qualities, she is immortal, a perfect goddess. Romeo uses sibilance and a simile to make Juliet’s voice sound like beautiful music to one’s ears; â€Å"Like softest music to attending ears! † In the beginning Romeo is represented as a typical young man. His language is completed with drama and emotions. Juliet is opposite, her language is straightforward and shows her disinterest in marriage and love. Juliet experiences the most dramatic change in the play after meeting and falling in love with Romeo in act II, scene ii. Juliet displays a newly sexually awaken young woman. Her language is altered to display a likeness of Romeo’s language which is constantly uses hyperboles and imagery to portray her intense emotions. Romeo is less of a dramatic change as he still remains a passionate young man. His feelings are more genuine love rather than lust. Romeo’s feelings are intensified by reciprocate love. Romeo also uses imagery to show intense feelings and the endeavour to commit to Juliet. Throughout the play Shakespeare uses numerous language techniques to convey emotions and to show true passion between two teenagers. The play demonstrates to what extent people are prepared to do for the power of love. Tragic consequences at the end of the play lead to sad emotions which heightens the audience. ‘Romeo and Juliet’, a tragic story that teaches people the true meaning of love.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Child Labor In The Industrial Revolution Essay - 1207 Words

Although children had been servants and apprentices throughout most of human history, child labor reached new extremes during the Industrial Revolution.There was a big impact on the daily life of a child labourer as poor children often worked full time jobs with minimal pay in order to help support their families. Young children worked long hours in factories under dangerous conditions. children were easier to manage and control than adults because their size was perfect as it allowed them to move in small spaces in factories or mines.The practice of child labor continued throughout much of the Industrial Revolution until laws were eventually passed that made child labor illegal. Pre-industrial era Children of poor and working-class†¦show more content†¦The roles available required long hours and supplied little pay. The poverty level became very excessive and each capable member of the family was required to work in order keep the family above deprivation. Families migrated from the rural farm areas to the newly industrialized, crowded towns on the lookout for work opportunities. in the course of this revolution, children became one of the groups that had been extensively affected due to the fact they were referred to as to workers within the factories. A family could no longer be capable of earning enough itself if the children weren t employed. This caused the excessive rise of child labour in factories. Children worked long hours on their family’s farms when they were living in the rural areas but in the cities the children worked extensively hard for very long hours for larger companies In what ways did government regulations impact the daily life of child labourers during the industrial revolution? Government regulations had a big impact on the daily life of child labourers during the industrial revolution in many ways, such as Children were often forced to work in difficult conditions for long hours. 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